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1932U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) establishes the Naval Stores Station in Olustee National Forest, Florida
1935Enactment of the Social Security Act, which excludes agricultural labor
1936 Establishment of the American Turpentine Farmers Association (ATFA) at a meeting of gum naval stores producers in Jacksonville, Florida, on March 18
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act passes; creation of the Naval Stores Conservation Program, which appropriates funds for gum naval stores price support
1937United States produces 53% of rosin and turpentine worldwide
First annual meeting of ATFA, Valdosta, Georgia, on April 21
ATFA initiates the Gum Turpentine National Advertising Campaign
ATFA contracts with G&A Laboratories, Inc. to research new uses for turpentine on October 1
1938Development of the "Olustee process", which uses steam in the distillation process; K.S. Varn & Company of Hoboken, Georgia is the first plant to employ this process
Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 allows price support for turpentine; ATFA becomes the field administrator for gum naval stores price support, administering the Gum Naval Stores Loan and Purchase Program for Commodity Credit Corporation
ATFA publishes first edition of AT-FA Journal
1939Numerous county agencies in Georgia and Florida adopt gum spirits of turpentine as a solvent for use in paint jobs on public properties
Charles Capers Rice establishes a rival cooperative, the Gum Turpentine Farmers Cooperative Association
Practice of packaging turpentine in small containers instead of drawing it from barrels makes the use of turpentine more convenient
New labels for turpentine bottles, "ATFA Seal of Approval"
1940Amendments to the Social Security Act repeal exemptions for naval stores from paying Social Security taxes
Time features ATFA in an article about the turpentine industry in April
First "Miss Gum Spirits of Turpentine" crowned at the ATFA annual convention
1941Frazier-Lempke Act declares turpentine workers are "farmers"
1942Turpentine farmers begin using acids to stimulate turpentine production
Gum Turpentine Farmers Cooperative Association becomes a member of ATFA in August
Launch of the Nationwide Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Campaign
1943ATFA terminates their research contract with G&A Laboratories, Inc. on January 1
Approval of a new ATFA label and design of a new glass bottle, which wins an award at the All American Packaging Competition
Centralized gum turpentine distillery built in Valdosta, Georgia
Turpentine gum producers no longer subject to Georgia Workmen’s Compensation Act
1944Naval stores caravans travel through the turpentine belt to encourage producers to make more turpentine for the war effort
Turpentine and Rosin Factors, Inc. opens in Valdosta, Georgia
First public screening of Suwanee Pine at the Ritz Theatre in Valdosta, Georgia
1946Turpentine & Rosin Factors, Inc. licenses Tandrotine, a petroleum thinner used as a substitute for turpentine
Laborers move from turpentine camps to pulpwood operations, creating a huge labor shortage for turpentine operations, which continues through the 1950s
1949The gum naval stores industry produces a 43 million dollar income with over eight thousand gum producers, proving it is still "an important segment of the economy of the South"
ATFA sponsors the first 4-H Club Naval Stores Camp at the Lowndes County 4-H Camp
Georgia state representative John W. Langdale initiates a proposal for a bill in 1949 to change Georgia from the "Peach State" to the "Turpentine State"
In November, the American Legion Convention in Philadelphia features a gum turpentine float carrying ATFA sample bottles
Peak of gum production
Georgia experiences the highest numbers of wildfires in a decade inspiring the production of Fire Call, a color film, by the Georgia Forestry Commission about protection against forest fires
1950sTurpentine production declines rapidly and producers begin turning to other industries
19508,863 gum producers in the U.S.
Valdosta chemists Woody Allen and Rene Bernard, Jr., create new plastic standards, to replace glass standards, for judging rosin color
Congress removes the exemption of agricultural labor from the Social Security Act, except for turpentine employees
circa 1951Establishment of the Equipment Development Project, in Gainesville, Florida, to research more efficient methods of farming gum turpentine
1952Election of Harley Langdale, Jr. to the Department of Agriculture's Forest Research Advisory Committee
1953Value of turpentine production in Georgia amounts to approximately $29,000,000 annually
Equipment Development Project moves from Gainesville, Florida to Olustee, Florida
ATFA urges producers to employ more modern turpentining methods to conserve trees
Election of ATFA president Judge Harley Langdale as president of the Georgia Co-operative Council
USDA contracts with the Armour Research Foundation and later Georgia Institute of Technology to study ways to make pinic acid, an ingredient in industrial products, from a turpentine component called alpha pinene
Judge Harley Langdale appoints Advisory Committee on Research of the ATFA and the Gum Processors Association
Langdale Cottage dedication at Rock Eagle Park complete with a plaque bearing Judge Harley Langdale's name and tracing the growth of ATFA
1954Rosin production hits an all-time low while Georgia becomes the leader in pulpwood production
USDA develops a new class of hydroperoxides from gum rosin derivatives; turpentine hydroperoxides speed up the production of rubber
ATFA begins holding educational field meetings for turpentine processors
Demand for gum rosin in paper production increases
1955ATFA’s membership reaches approximately 4,000
Jim L. Gillis, Jr. and Ray Shirley meet with W.A. Sutton, Assistant Director, Georgia Agricultural Extension Service, regarding the cost of making a naval stores film
Rise of petroleum thinners threatens the gum turpentine market
Turpentine production continues to drop lower than numbers from the preceding year
1957J. Aubrey Smith's film on turpentine production, More Profit Than Gum, wins the American Association of Agricultural College Editors' Farm Film Award
Naval Stores Station of USDA's Southern Research and Development Division develops a continuous steam still to increase production of turpentine and rosin
1958Congress removes exemption of turpentine farmers from the Social Security Act
ATFA approves the formation and charter of the Pine Gum Development Corporation whose responsibility it is to store ATFA and Commodity Credit Corporation stocks on December 8
1960sWood naval stores overtake gum turpentine plants as the leading naval stores industry
1960On July 27, the dedication of new office and laboratory building of the USDA Forest Service's Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, near Olustee, Florida, formerly located in the Post Office Building at Lake City, Florida
Naval Stores Conservation Program adopts a mascot named "Willie Barkhack," on November 8
Central stills entirely replace individual fire stills
1961On September 25, ATFA members vote to place all their gum turpentine into the federal loan program until prices and supply stabilize
ATFA protests the labeling of turpentine as poison, and seven congressional representatives show their support by writing a letter to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Their campaign is successful and the Food and Drug Administration ends efforts to label turpentine as poison.
1962A mechanical gum harvester, the J.B. Bennett Power Chipper, developed by Waycross farmer, Julian Bennett, becomes available for purchase
The Olustee, Florida unit of the Southeastern Experiment Station establishes naval stores research as a separate program in which the physiology of gum production becomes a major area of study
1963USDA develops a new type of plastic made from pine gum rosin
USDA dedicates the new Georgia Forestry Commission building in the Waycross State Forest to Dr. Charles H. Herty, inventor of the cup and gutter technique to collection gum turpentine
1965University of Georgia begins a $500,000 research program of naval stores pines
At the October meeting, Judge Harley Langdale steps down as ATFA president and former ATFA director, Jim L. Gillis, Jr. of Soperton, Georgia takes his place. Also, Downing Musgrove, former general manager of ATFA, takes Gillis' position as ATFA Director and Vice President.
1966Gum turpentine production drops to an all time low in nearly seventy years
19 gum turpentine processing plants remain by May
1967The government starts liquidating its gum naval stores
1969Only 1,222 gum producers remain
Final distribution of AT-FA Journal in April
1970sCentralized gum turpentine distillery in Valdosta closes
1970ATFA discontinues both the 4-H Naval Stores Camp held in Lowndes County and the Alabama FFA Home Improvement Contest
1972Judge Harley Langdale dies in April
1975Due to shrinking attendance at the annual meeting, ATFA amends bylaws from one hundred members constituting a quorum to 10% of the members in good standing
ATFA discontinues the annual convention and replaces it with four annual regional meetings
ATFA discontinues the Miss Gum Turpentine contest at the annual convention, instead the Queen will be chosen from entries in the Miss Georgia Forestry Contest at the Georgia Forestry Commission Convention
1979Gum production falls 1,217 thousand barrels from its peak in 1949
1980sBrazil, Portugal, China, and Indonesia become the major world producers of gum naval stores
1980USDA stops reporting gum production and prices
Commodity Credit Cooperation ends loan program with ATFA
Approximately 300 gum producers remain
1981Government run price support program for ATFA ceases
1982Georgia Agrirama holds 1st annual Naval Stores Day and runs its turpentine still
1991ATFA and the Georgia Forestry Commission support research on gum extraction and collection methods in the Southeast
circa 1992Cracker Barrel stops using rosin for baking potatoes
1992Georgia Forestry Association discontinues Miss Georgia Forestry Queen contest, which is now run by the Georgia Forestry Commission
1993Transfer of ATFA files and artifacts to the Georgia Agrirama in Tifton
1996Relocation of ATFA office from Valdosta to the Georgia Forestry Commission’s McRae District Office
2001Last bucket of Georgia gum for commercial turpentine produced on August 9